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高中英语必备:名词性从句解析及习题。

发布时间:2016-12-02 11:48:08  浏览次数( 次)

一.历届高考试题名词性从句考查的焦点主要有以下六方面

1.考查名词性从句的语序问题

2.考查引导词that与what的区别

3. 考查it在名词性从句中作形式主语或形式宾语的用法

4. 考查whether与if的区别

5. 考查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句与no matter+疑问词引导的状语从句的区别

6. 考查名词性从句的虚拟语气问题

2二.语法要点剖析

名词性从句

主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句,在整个句子中所起的作用,相当于一个名词。因此,这四种从句通称为名词性从句。

引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:

连接词:that, whether, if ,as if,as though,because(不充当从句的任何成分)

连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever,whose, which,whichever.(在从句中做主语、宾语、表语和定语)

连接副词:when, whenever,where,wherever, how, however,why(在从句中做状语)

1.主语从句

作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。

What he wants to tell us is not clear.

他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。

It is known to us how he became a writer.

我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。

Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced.

英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。

有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:

(1)It + be + 名词 + that从句

(2)It + be + 形容词 + that从句

(3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that从句

(4)It + 不及物动词 + that 从句

另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有:

It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …

It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that…

It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…

2. 宾语从句

用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。

He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow.

他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。

We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing.

我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。

注意:在demand、order、suggest、decide、insist, desire, demand, request, command等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。

I insist that she (should) do her work alone.

我坚持要她自己工作。

The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once.

司令员命令部队马上出发。

注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用不同时态。

I know (that) he will study English next year.

(从句用一般将来时)

当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。

The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America.

think, believe, imagine, suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。

We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。

I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。

3. 表语从句

在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。

The fact is that we have lost the game.

事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。

That is why he didn’t come to the meeting.

那就是他为什么不到会的原因。

It looks as if it is going to rain.

看上去天要下雨了。

需要注意的,当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because。

The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning

4. 同位语从句

同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。

可用于同位语从句的名词有advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word等抽象名词。

The news that we won the game is exciting. 

我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。

I have no idea when he will come back home.

我不知道他什么时候回来。

The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。

同位语从句和定语从句的区别:

that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。

试比较下面两个例句:

I had no idea that you were here.

(that引导同位语从句,不能省略)

Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?

(that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)


 

3三.连接词that在名词性从句中可以省略的三种情况


 

1.it 做形式主语时,that引导的主语从句

It is said (that) he has been studying abroad.

2.动词宾语从句

I think(that) you have much to improve in English.

3.形容词宾语从句

I am afraid (that) I will be late.

名词性从句专项练习20题

1. His success was because of ________ he had been working hard.

A. that B. the fact which

C. the fact that D. the fact

2. “Is Mary from New York City” “I don't know _______.”

A. from what city does she come from

B. from what city she come

C. what city does she come from

D. what city she comes from

3. ________ makes mistakes must correct them.

A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever

4. The reason why I didn't go to Shanghai was ________ a new job.

A. because I got B. because of getting

C. I got D. that I got

5. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey.

A. while B. that C. if D. for

6. Henry killed the dog. I'll ask him why ________.

A. did he do that B. he did that

C. he did D. he has done so

7. Have you seen Henry lately? My boss wants to know ________.

A. how he is getting along

B. how is he getting along

C. what he is getting along

D. what is he getting along

8. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants.

A. however B. whatever

C. whichever D. whenever

9. He asked me ________ with me.

A. what is the trouble B. what wrong was

C. what was the matter D. what trouble it is

10. I am sure ________ he said is true.

A. that B. about that C. of that D. that what

11. When and why he came here ________ yet.

A. is not known B. are not known

C. has not known D. have not bee

12. I wonder how much ________.

A. does the watch cost B. did the watch cost

C. the watch costed D. the watch costs

13. Mary is ________ someone might recognize her.

A. afraid of B. afraid about

C. afraid that D. afraid for

14.________ is no reason for dismissing her.

A. Because she was a few minutes late

B. Owing to a few minutes late

C. The fact that she was a few minutes late

D. Being a few minutes late

15. They came to the conclusion ________ by a computer.

A. that not all things can be done

B. because of not all things be done

C. being not all things can be done

D. because not all things can be done

16. Why the explosion occurred was ________ the laboratory attendant had been careless.

A. for B. because C. since D. that

17. I don't doubt ________ he'll come.

A. that B. if C. what D. whether

18. —“Why did you go to the wrong class, Mr. Wang”

—“Well, I forget _______ I was supposed to go to.”

A. which the room B. which room

C. what was the room D. what room was it

19. Output is now six times ________ it was before liberation.

A. that B. which C. what D. of which

20. Mary: Helen is a mere washer woman, yet she's now buying a big house.

Carol: Yes. Because she's always saved ________.

A. what little she earns B. how little she earns

C. for little she earns D. with little she earns

key.1-5.CDCDB 6-10.BABCD 11-15.ADCCA 16-20.DABCA

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